An overview of the latin america before the independence

By mid-century the region also confronted a growing United States, seeking to expand on the North American continent and extend its influence in the hemisphere. The primary form through which Spaniards attempted to take advantage of the functioning of the indigenous world was what came to be known as the encomiendaa governmental grant of an indigenous sociopolitical unit to an individual Spaniard for him to use in various ways.

The Spanish-American city remained like this for centuries—Spanish in the centre, Indian on the edges, growing indefinitely without changing at the core, the site of an enormous process of cultural change.

They also brought up both their own fully Spanish children and the racially mixed children they often took or were given to raise. The endemic political instability and the nature of the economy resulted in the emergence of caudillosmilitary chiefs whose hold on power depended on their military skill and ability to dispense patronage.

It is my belief that this reading can serve a purpose as long as you are responsible and actually complete it. The north and the culmination of independence Independence movements in the northern regions of Spanish South America had an inauspicious beginning in The gender ratio strongly favoured males, but females were present too, usually in household service, food trades, and petty commerce.

We will discuss urbanization, the rise of the Latin American middle sectors, and the widespread phenomenon of populism, and how all of this differentially affected women and men.

History of Latin America

By late the situation was becoming unbearable. If there is one theme in this course, it is that of choices. Mexican Creoles, like those in Peru, had the spectre of a major social uprising to persuade them to cling to Spain and stability for a while longer.

Both were prone to being taken over by a caudillo or an oligarchy. Two figures from the early rebellion played central roles in liberating Mexico. Creoles selectively adapted rather than simply embraced the thought that had informed revolutions in North America and France.

Independence destroyed the old common market that existed under the Spanish Empire after the Bourbon Reforms and created an increased dependence on the financial investment provided by nations which had already begun to industrialize ; therefore, Western European powers, in particular Great Britain and France, and the United States began to play major roles, since the region became economically dependent on these nations.

Excessive absence from class will be noted and factored into the final grade. The cacique received labour but not tribute in kind, and the encomendero, in practice, followed suit.

Latin America after Independence: 1821-30

The leaders, who invested most, were senior people with local wealth and a following; the ordinary members were men without encomiendas, often recently arrived. But factional disputes interfered with governance, and Bolivar acquired dictatorial authority and then was forced to flee.

Authoritarian solutions, revolutionary solutions, U. Religious devotion became more localized, with the appearance of locally born saints and near-saints, notably St. The cacique received labour but not tribute in kind, and the encomendero, in practice, followed suit.

The Colombian government opposed this, but a Panamanian insurrection provided the United States with an opportunity. Silver mining camps began to resemble ordinary Spanish municipalities, with councils dominated by local mining entrepreneurs and strong contingents of merchants, craftspeople, and professionals.

While he organized the government there, his lieutenants set out to win the highlands of Peru and Upper Peru. In Peru, the highland centre of indigenous population was separate from the centre of Spanish population on the coast, which, in addition, quickly lost most of its indigenous inhabitants to disease.

The arrival of the court transformed Brazil in ways that made its return to colony status impossible. Settlements or villages shifted over time both in location and in membership; the largest strongly defined unit was a household often containing scores of people related by blood and marriage, headed by the eldest male, and the best-defined duties in the society were internal to the household.

All shared an isolation from the great mass of humanity inhabiting Eurasia and Africa, who were in some way in contact with one another. At Carabobo on June 24, his forces decisively defeated Spanish and colonial forces, winning Venezuelan independence, although hostilities continued.

The following year a larger and revitalized independence movement emerged, winning the struggle in the north and taking it into the Andean highlands. Background to the Cuban Revolution April After the events at Cajamarca, the Spaniards faced a certain amount of fighting as they advanced to Cuzco, especially from adherents of Atahuallpa, but his enemies, who seem to have been the majority on the ground, tended to acquiesce for the time being.

Zapata was assassinated on April 10, In cities throughout the region, Creole frustrations increasingly found expression in ideas derived from the Enlightenment.

Other African slaves bought their freedom, and a mainly urban class of free blacks began to emerge. They were located primarily in areas that under the then-existing technologies were not propitious for agriculture, especially plains and dense tropical forests.

Types of Western Hemisphere societies The Europeans were sedentary, living in nations and districts with distinct borders, relying on a permanent intensive agriculture to sustain many people in a variety of pursuits who lived in both urban and rural communities.

From to there was a stalemate in New Spain, with royalist forces unable to defeat the insurgents and the insurgents unable to expand beyond their narrow territory in the southern region.

Latin America is attracting increasing interest due to the strong economic performance of the last decade and to the political changes that are taking place. This book gives a unique, comprehensive, and up to date view of Latin America economic development over the two centuries since Independence.

The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.

Independence, (Cambridge, ) and Stephen Haber (ed.), How Latin America Fell run consequences of colonial emancipation and the widening gap in living standards between Latin America and the developed countries 2.

Independence, (Cambridge, ) and Stephen Haber (ed.), How Latin America Fell run consequences of colonial emancipation and the widening gap in living standards between Latin America and the developed countries 2.

Latin American History Before Columbus Colonialism and Imperialism The Caribbean Central America Independence Days in Latin America. List. Most Impressive Facial Hair in the History of Latin America. An Overview. Article. Timeline of the Mexican-American War. Article. Roots of. Using the Napoleonic invasion of Spain as an excuse, most of Latin America declared independence from Spain in ByMexico, Central America, and South America were free, soon to .

An overview of the latin america before the independence
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History of Latin America - Wikipedia